Scallops Have Telescope Mirror Eyes

Scallops have telescope mirror eyes, according to reports in Science (AAAS) News and Live Science 30 November 2017, and Science doi: 10.1126/science.aam9506, 1 December 2017. Scallops are bivalve shellfish that have many tiny round eyes. The eyes have an unusual structure – they have two retinae (light sensitive layers) and a mirror that focuses the […]

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Leaf Computing

Leaf computing intrigues scientists, according to an article in Nature Science Update, 21 January 2004. Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air through small gaps between cells on their undersides, called stomata, but these cannot be left open all the time or the plant will lose too much water vapour and dry out. In […]

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Sauropod Head Neck

Getting to Grips with Dino Neck Bones

Getting to grips with dino neck bones reported in Science (AAAS) News 27 February 2017. Sauropods, such as the iconic Brontosaurus and Diplodocus, were enormous dinosaurs with extremely long necks. The weight of the neck and the forces generated by moving it put enormous strain on the vertebral bones, especially while the vertebrae were still […]

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Frog & Insect

Frog Tongue Physics

Frog tongue physics described in reports in Science (AAAS) News 31 January, ScienceDaily 1 February 2017, and Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 20160764 doi: 10.1098/rsif.2016.0764, 1 February 2017. Engineers and biologists at Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, have studied how frogs’ tongues function. It is not just enough for the tongue to […]

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Steel Sheets

Bone Inspired Steel

Bone inspired steel made, as described in Science (AAAS) News and New Scientist 9 March 2017 and Science doi: 10.1126/science.aal2766, 10 March 2017. Metal fatigue is the weakening of a metal structure when it is repeatedly subjected to forces (“load cycling”), leading to the formation of microscopic cracks, as happens where aeroplane wings move up […]

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Designer Yeast Chromosomes

Designer yeast chromosomes reported in Science, vol. 355, pp1024-1025 doi: 10.1126/science.aam9739, 10 March 2017. Several international teams of scientists have made five artificial chromosomes of a yeast cell. This is part of a massive ongoing project to make synthetic life. A summary of the current state of the research is headed “Yeast Genome, by Design” […]

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Sandfish Lizards

How to Breathe Under Sand

How to breathe under sand described in Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB) 16 November 2016, doi: 10.1242/jeb.151969. The sandfish lizard (Scincus scincus) lives in the North African sandy desert and spends most of its life buried in sand. Scientists who have studied this creature have wondered why it doesn’t end up with its lungs clogged […]

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Anternet Controls Seed Harvest

Anternet controls seed harvest, according to a report in ScienceDaily 29 August 2012. Biologist Deborah Gordon and computer scientist Balaji Prabhakar of Stanford University have found harvester ants use a system to control the rate of sending out ant foragers that works in the same way internet protocols control data transfer on the Internet. Gordon has been […]

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Adaptable Orchids Use Epigenetics

Adaptable orchids use epigenetics, according to ScienceDaily, 10 Aug 2010 and Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2010; DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msq150. Scientists at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew’s Jodrell Laboratory are studying the effects of epigenetics in orchids to see how they may adapt to environmental changes. Epigenetics refers to changes in the way genes are expressed. These changes […]

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Chemists Win Nobel Prize for Sorting Right from Left

Chemists win 2001 AD Nobel Prize for sorting right hand from left after 33 years of research. Many molecules come in two slightly different shapes. They are like your two hands – they contain the same components but are mirror images of one another in shape. The different forms of molecules are referred to as […]

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