Four-Winged Flapping

Secret of four-winged flapping revealed in an article in ScienceNOW, 14th May 2008. Dragonflies and damselflies have four wings, which they can move independently using a special system of muscles that other insects do not have. (Other four winged insects, such as butterflies, move their wings synchronously, as if they only had two wings.) Computer […]

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Galapagos Cormorant

How Flightless Cormorants Evolved

How flightless cormorants evolved, according to reports in Science News and UCLA News 1 June 2017, and Science doi:10.1126/science.aal3345, 2 June 2017. The Galapagos cormorant, Phalacrocorax harrisi, has short stubby wings and a small sternum (breast bone), and is the world’s only flightless cormorant. Flightless birds have intrigued evolutionary biologists from Darwin onwards. An international […]

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How Hummingbirds Avoid Crashes

How hummingbirds avoid crashes according to ScienceDaily and New Scientist 18 July 2016 and PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1603221113, published online 18 July 2016. Hummingbirds are incredibly agile and fast flyers. In their natural environment they are able to fly through dense forests at speeds up to 50km per hour without colliding with any obstacles, and accurately […]

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